Aquaculture in Europe and in countries bordering the Mediterranean and Black Seas is an important activity that has grown substantially during the past decades though mostly in Mediterranean and Black Sea riparian countries. Fish farming helps to meet the rising demand for fisheries products and contributes to food security, employment and economic development. In terms of blue growth, aquaculture constitutes a strategic sector for future sustainable development. This growth was possible thanks to a series of factors, such as improvements in fish feed performance, better control of pathogens, and the evolution of cage and land-based technologies. Political will, regional and international cooperation, and significant investments, both public and private, have also strongly contributed to the sector’s development. In addition, new market opportunities positively influenced this expansion as well.